COURSE CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION
Experimental methods – Physical Quantities – Units of Measurements – Dimensional Analysis – Measurement errors – Rounding Off – Significant Digits – Scientific Notation.
VECTORS
General Information – Scalar and Vector Physical Quantities – Representation of Physical Quantities by means of vectors - Vector Operations: sum, difference, product of a vector with a scalar, scalar product, Vector product - Commutative Property - Associative Property - Components of a Vector - Derivation of a Vector - Integration.
KINEMATICS
Material Point - Position - Speed - Acceleration - Hourly Law – Rectilinear Uniform Motion – Uniformly Accelerated Motion - Parabolic Motion – Angular Velocity – Angular Acceleration - Uniform Circular Motion – Constant Angular Acceleration Motion – Rotational Vector Physical Quantities.
DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS
Principle of Inertia - Inertial Mass - Force - 2nd Newton's Law - Principle of Action and Reaction – Laws of Force: Gravitational Force, Weight Force, Frictional Force, Elastic Force - Application of the Laws of Newton - Motion Along an Inclined Plane - Circular Motions: Centripetal Forces.
REFERENCE SYSTEMS
Inertial and Non-Inertial Reference Systems – Galilean Transformations – Law of Composition of Speed - Fictitious Forces - Principle of Galilean Invariance.
ENERGY CONSERVATION
Work - Power - Kinetic Energy – Theorems of Kinetic Energy - Conservative Forces- Potential Energy- Potential energy Calculation – Elastic Potential Energy – Gravitational Potential Energy -Central Forces - Mechanical Energy Conservation - Non-Conservative Forces – Energy Mass Equivalence.
MATERIAL POINT SYSTEMS DYNAMICS
Material Point Systems - Internal Forces and External Forces - Momentum - Momentum and Law of Newton - Center of Mass of a Material Point System – Center of Mass Speed –Center of Mass Acceleration - Conservation of Motion Quantities for a Material Point system –Mechanical Momentum - Angular Momentum - Conservation of the Angular Moment for a Material Points System.
VIBRATIONS
Pulse of a force - Elastic, inelastic and completely inelastic shocks
RIGID BODY DYNAMICS
Rigid Body - Motion of a Rigid Body - Work and Kinetic Energy in the Rotational Motion - Moments of Inertia - Rigid rotations around a fixed axis in an inertial reference system –Moment of Forces and Angular Acceleration of a Rigid Body - Conservation Laws in the Motion of a Rigid body.
OSCILLATIONS
Simple Harmonic Oscillator: Motion Equations and Solutions - Mass-Spring System - Simple Pendulum -Physical Pendulum - Kinetic and Potential Energy in Simple Harmonic Motions - Damped Harmonic Oscillator -Forced Harmonic Oscillator – Resonance.
WAVES
Harmonic wave, Wave Propagation Speed, Wave along a Tight Rope, Principle of Overlap - Fourier Analysis, Wave Interference, Stationary Waves
GRAVITATION
Fundamental Forces - Historical Background - Gravitational Force - Principle of Overlap - Terrestrial Gravitational Force - Central Force - Conservation of the Angular Momentum - Gravitational Potential Energy - Gravitational Potential Energy of two Point form Masses - Motion of a body subjected to Gravitational Force - Case of Circular Orbit - Terrestrial Satellites - Escape Velocity - Kepler Laws-Newton's Reasoning - Cavendish Experiment.
MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
Pressure – Density –Stevino's Law – Pascal Principle – Archimedes Principle – Condition of Floating – Motion of an Ideal Fluid –Continuity Equation – Bernoulli Equation.
THERMODYNAMICS ELEMENTS
THERMOMETER AND CALORIMETER
Thermal Balance - Zero Principle - Temperature Concept - Temperature Measurement – Thermometer Perfect Gas - Kelvin Temperature - Heat Calorimetric Definition - Thermal Capacity – Heat Specific and Latent Calories - Calorie - Calorimeter - Heat Sources - Mechanical Heat Equivalent- Heat transmission Overview: Conduction, Convection, Radiation.
THERMODINAMICI SYSTEMS
Thermodynamic Systems and States - Open System - Closed System - Isolated System - Macroscopic Viewpoint - Thermodynamic Coordinates - Thermodynamic Balance - Simple Thermodynamic Systems- PVT Systems - Status Equation - Perfect Gas Status Equation -Thermodynamic Transformations – Quasi-static Transformation – Reversible and Irreversible Transformations - Reversible quasi-static Transformation.
HEAT, WORK AND FIRST THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLE
Work in a Transformation of a PVT system - Adiabatic Work - Internal Energy – Definition Heat Thermodynamics - First Principle of Thermodynamics – Internal energy of an ideal gas: Free expansion.
KINETIC THEORY OF GAS
Number of Avogadro, Ideal Gases, Law of Ideal Gases, Work of an Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature, Work of an Ideal Gas at Constant Pressure, Work of an Ideal Gas at Constant Volume, Relationship Between Pressure and Speed, Relationship Between Translational Kinetic Energy and Temperature.
SECOND THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLE
Conversion of Work to Heat and vice versa - Thermal Machines - Kelvin Planck's Statement of Second Principle of Thermodynamics - Refrigerating Machines - Clausius's statement of The second Thermodynamic Principle – Equivalence of the two Statements.
REVERSIBILITY - ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE
Reversibility and Irreversibility - Carnot Cycle - Carnot's Theorem - Carnot's Machine - Absolute Thermodynamic temperature.
ENTROPY
Clausius Theorem, The function of Entropy State, Entropy for Irreversible Transformations, Principle of Increase of entropy, Universe and Entropy, Unusable Energy